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actuating control: an operator control used to initiate slide motion. Reference: foot control; pedal; twohand control; two hand trip.

adapter plate: a plate or fabrication installed between the die(s) and the slide, to accommodate the die configuration to the slide face for proper location and fastening. NOTE: When used with a quick die change system, the adapter plate is provided with clamping slots and/or a hole pattern

ADC: automatic die change.

adjustable barrier guard: a guard with provisions for adjustment to accommodate various jobs or tooling setups.

adjustable bed: a bed bolted to the straight, vertical, finished surface of a horn or gap press frame and screw or screws usually operated by a hand mechanism. NOTE: Can also refer to the bed (of a large straight side press) mounted and guided in the press frame and provided with a suitable mechanism, usually operated supported, and adjusted up and down, by means of a by power, for varying the press shutheight. An example is a wedge adjustment on a knuckle joint press.

adjustable bed press: a gap frame press with a straight front that is equipped with, or arranged for, an adjustable bed. Reference: horn press.

adjustable stroke: the capability of varying the length of stroke of a slide.

adjustment of a slide: preferred term is slide adjustment.

air cushion: preferred term is die cushion.

air jack: preferred term is die cushion.

air pad: preferred term is die cushion.

air pin: preferred term is pressure pin.

air press: preferred term is pneumatic power press.

antirepeat: the function of the control system that limits the press to a single cycle with the actuating control(s) held operated. NOTE: Antirepeat requires the release of all actuating controls before another cycle can be initiated. Antirepeat is the control equivalent of a single-cycle mechanism, with the additional requirement of the release of all actuating controls to enable a new cycle. The function of antirepeat is to prevent the successive cycles that could occur if the antirepeat control did not exist. Reference: single cycle capability; single cycle mechanism.

anti tie-down: with a two-hand control device, the function of the control system that requires the release of all actuators before press operation can be reinitiated.

automatic die change: the fully programmable procedure for changing from the current die setup to a second die setup, without any manual intervention. NOTE: An automatic die change can involve a single press, or a line of presses dedicated to the production of a single end product.

automatic die clamp: a power actuated means for fastening dies into the press. NOTE: Automatic die clamps are usually electrically controlled and may be hydraulically or pneumatically actuated. Reference: die clamp.

automatic feeding: the process whereby means other than manual are used to place the material or workpiece(s) into the press and to remove the material or workpiece(s) from the press. NOTE: Transfer press feeds also move the workpiece(s) from die station to die station. For pick-and-place or robotic systems, feeding mechanisms move the workpiece(s) from press to press. Reference: manual feeding.

automatic mode: any operating mode that produces continuous cycling. Reference: automatic single cycle; continuous cycling; continuous mode; operator-maintained continuous mode.

automatic press: a press production system in which the work, either separate workpieces, coil stock, or sheet stock, is fed through the press in synchronism with the press and by means other than manual. NOTE: Progressive die and transfer presses are the most common automatic presses. Reference: synchronous press line.

automatic single cycle: continuous cycling, initiated by an operator, and maintained by actuating signals from an automatic feeding mechanism, or other auxiliary equipment, without further operator interaction.

automatic single stroke: preferred term is automatic single cycle.

barrier guard: preferred term is guard.

bed: the frame member of the press to which the bolster is attached. NOTE: The lower die shoe is sometimes attached directly to the bed.

bed opening (1): space(s) in the bed of a press to accommodate a die cushion(s).

bed opening (2): space(s) in the bed of a press provided for removal of scrap or parts from the die(s).

bed size: the area provided to accommodate the bolster, expressed as left-to-right by front-to-back.

bench press: any small press of a size to be mounted on a bench or table. NOTE: Bench presses are almost always gap frame and may be inclinable or stationary.

blank: a flat workpiece produced as the first operation of a stamping process.

blankholder slide: preferred term is outer slide.

blanking (1): the process of producing a flat stamping from coil, strip, or sheet stock.

blanking (2): the means of bypassing a portion of a sensing field of a presence-sensing safeguarding device.

blank-out: preferred term is blanking (2).

bolster: the plate attached to the bed, which may have tapped holes, T-slots, or other means for attaching die components. NOTE: When the press is fitted with die cushions, the bolster will have holes for retaining and guiding pressure pins. If die cushions are slide-mounted, a bolster plate may be used as a slide adapter.

bolster carriage: preferred term is moving bolster.

bolster plate: preferred term is bolster.

bottom drive press: preferred term is underdrive press.

brake: a mechanism for stopping, slowing, or preventing motion. NOTE: The brake may be a constantdrag type (typical on a full-revolution clutch press), or it may be a type disengaged while the clutch is engaged (most typical with a part-revolution clutch press). It may be a separate unit, or it may be a unit incorporated in combination with the clutch.

brake monitor: preferred term is stopping-performance monitor.

bulldozer: a slow-acting horizontal mechanical press with a large bed used for bending and straightening. NOTE: The work, which is done between dies, may be either hot or cold. The machine is closely allied to a forging press.

cam press: a multiple action press in which the slide(s) is operated by a cam-driven mechanism to produce dwell at the end of the stroke. NOTE: On multiple action presses, toggle-driven mechanisms are more common than cam-driven mechanisms. Reference: dwell.

capacity of a press: preferred term is rated capacity.

catwalk: a platform or system of platforms, usually elevated at least 8 feet above floor level. NOTE: Catwalks are provided for placement of press controls or access to other auxiliary equipment. With a multiple press line, catwalks on individual presses are usually connected together.

center drive: a two-point geared press with the crankshaft driven from the center.

C-frame press: preferred term is gap frame press.

clutch: a mechanism that, when engaged, transmits torque to impart motion from a driving member to a driven member. NOTE: On a mechanical power press, a clutch couples the flywheel to the main shaft or eccentric gear(s), either directly or through gear reduction(s). Reference: full-revolution clutch; partrevolution clutch.

coining: the process of sizing, shaping, reshaping, compacting, or controlling the dimensions of a workpiece by confining or restraining one or more surfaces.

column: preferred term is uprights.

combination clutch/brake: an integral clutch and brake, with a common actuator, arranged so that upon clutch engagement the brake is disengaged, and upon clutch disengagement the brake is engaged.

connecting link: preferred term is connection.

connecting rod: preferred term is connection.

connection: connecting member between a rotating drive member, such as a crank, and a reciprocating member, such as a slide.

contact velocity: the linear speed at the point in the stroke where the die engages the material or workpiece(s). NOTE: Contact velocity is a function of length of stroke, strokes per minute, and crank angle.

continuous cycling: multiple cycles of the slide without intervening stops at the end of individual cycles.

continuous mode: continuous cycling, initiated by an operator, and maintained by the press control system, without further operator interaction.

continuous stroking: preferred term is continuous cycling.

continuous-on-demand mode: preferred term is automatic single cycle.

control console: a free-standing master operator station. NOTE: A control console is usually used to operate an automatic press production system, including peripheral equipment such as, but not limited to: (a) destacker; (b) automation; and (c) exit conveyor.

control pedestal: preferred term is T-stand.

control podium: preferred term is control console.

control pulpit: preferred term is control console.

counterbalance: means provided to balance the reciprocating mass of the slide, drive members, and slide attachments. NOTE: Counterbalance is usually provided by the use of pneumatic counterbalance cylinders, which were originally provided to eliminate force reversal and shock loading of the main gear(s) at the end of the closing stroke travel. Counterbalance may also prevent a falling slide (and its attachments) in the event of: (a) a broken connection on a single-point press; or (b) loss of the brake with the clutch disengaged. Springs or other means may also be used to provide counterbalance force. Reference: dynamic balance; push-type cylinder.

counterbalance system: preferred term is counterbalance.

crank angle: the measurement of slide position at a predetermined point in the press cycle, based on the angular position of the crank throw (or eccentric) using top dead center as the reference point. NOTE: On a crankshaft, eccentric shaft, or eccentric gear press, top dead center is at zero deg. On all presses, bottom dead center is at 180 deg.

crank press: a basic type of mechanical power press wherein the reciprocating slide motion is produced by a crankshaft or an eccentric shaft. Reference: eccentric gear press.

crossbar: a type of knockout.

crossbar transfer feed: a transfer feed that is capable of two motions: lift and transfer. NOTE: A crossbar transfer feed uses tooling bars. The ends of the bars are fastened to the transfer rails. Utilization of a crossbar feed requires that the crossbars come to a rest position between the die stations after the workpieces are deposited in the dies and before the press closes. Reference: transfer feed; tri-axis transfer feed; two axis transfer feed; walking beam.

crown: the frame member of a press that houses the mechanism for driving the slide(s), except on an underdrive press.

cushion: preferred term is die cushion.

cushion lock: preferred term is die cushion lock.

cycle: a complete movement of the slide, from the initial start position back to the same start position, that may include feeding and removal of the material or workpiece(s).

cycle stop: preferred term is top stop.

dead inch: inching (or jogging) of a press with the flywheel rotating and power removed from the drive motor.

dead pin: the fixed main shaft of an eccentric gear press wherein the gear(s) rotates on this shaft.

deflection: the amount of deviation of a press member, measured from a reference surface, when a force is applied. NOTE: Used to specify allowable deviation of bed, slide, or frame, at rated capacity with a specified load distribution.

die(s): the tooling used in a press for blanking, shearing, punching, forming, drawing, or assembling metal or other material. NOTE: Commonly the plural dies is used to describe the complete die, consisting of an upper element and a lower element. Thus, the expression dies close has the same meaning as die closes.

die block: preferred term is safety block.

die cart plate: the interface between the die and the fixed roller plate when the press is converted to QDC. The die(s) is bolted to the die cart plate, which is rolled in and out of the press utilizing the rollers in the fixed roller plate.

die change time: the total elapsed time from the start of removal of the currently installed die to the completion of installation of the next die.

die changeover time: preferred term is die change time.

die clamp: a mechanism attached to a press member, such as a slide or bed, for fastening the die(s) into the press. NOTE: On a slide, die clamps fasten to the upper die shoe or the clamping plate. On a bed, die clamps fasten to the lower die shoe, bottom clamping plate, or moving bolster.

die cushion: a press accessory that provides the counterforce required in some operations to aid in the forming or release of the workpiece. NOTE: The pressure system used to produce counterforce is usually compressed air, but hydraulic systems, hydro pneumatic systems, rubber, and springs are also used. Although usually mounted within the press bed and under the bolster, die cushions may sometimes be mounted within the slide, within an attachment to the slide, or within the die. A die cushion may also act as stripper or liftout. Reference: nitrogen cylinder.

die cushion lock: a means of holding the die cushion in its stroke down position, and relieving all force from the stamping, until the press slide has reached a predetermined position in its return stroke. NOTE: The locking device is usually a hydraulic cylinder attached to the die cushion.

die enclosure guard: a guard attached to the die shoe or stripper in a fixed position.

die safety block: preferred term is safety block.

die set: a tool holder consisting of a lower die shoe and an upper die shoe or punchholder, held in alignment by guide posts and bushings. NOTE: Means of maintaining parallelism and alignment of the upper and lower die shoes include the following: (a) guideposts and bushings that are usually an integral part of the die set; (b) guideposts and bushings, supplemented by heel blocks to contain lateral forces; and (c) the press gibbing, or other means of guiding the press slide.

die setting: the process of installing or removing dies and the process of adjusting and safeguarding the dies, other tooling, or equipment.

die shoe: a plate or block upon which the die members are mounted. NOTE: A die shoe functions primarily as a base for the complete die assembly and, if used, is bolted or clamped to the bolster or to the face of the slide. The individual die shoes are often referred to as the lower shoe and the upper shoe or punch holder.

die shutheight: the actual or design dimension between the mounting surfaces of a die. NOTE: Maximum die shutheight to which a die can be designed is the press shutheight less the bolster thickness. Reference: press shutheight.

die space: the volume encompassed by the slide area projected to the bed or bolster surface, wherein the dies are mounted.

die spotter: preferred term is spotting press.

die transition time: the total changeover time from the last good part until the operation is producing the next good part.

die tryout: the process of functionally testing and performing adjustments or alterations to the die assembly. NOTE: Die tryout differs from die setting in that tryout will usually involve more significant alterations to the die than the routine adjustments associated with die setting. Die tryout may occur as the final construction phase of the die, in a number of different situations, some of which are: (a) in the die builder’s (vendor’s) plant and press; (b) in the user’s plant in a press other than that intended for production; or (c) in the user’s plant in the press designated to be used for production.

direct drive: the type of driving arrangement that does not use a clutch.

double action press: a multiple action press with two slides. Reference: multiple action press

double crank press: a crank press with force applied through two connections. NOTE: A double crank press may be either a gap frame press or a straight side press.

drift (1): on a mechanical power press, the overtravel of the slide past top dead center when stopping.

drift (2): on a hydraulic power press, the downward movement of the slide due to leakage within the hydraulic system.

drive: the source of mechanical force and energy to impart press motion.

dry cycle: a complete movement of the slide from the initial start position back to the same start position, without the feeding and removal of parts.

dwell: a portion of the press cycle where movement of the slide is zero, or at least insignificant. NOTE: Usually refers to the interval in a drawing operation when the blankholder is holding the blank while the punch is making the draw.

dynamic balance: means to balance the reciprocating weight and inertial forces of the slide, drive members, and slide attachments. NOTE: A dynamically balanced mechanical press includes counterweights to balance rotary crank forces along with an auxiliary balancing means to balance reciprocating slide inertia forces.

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