actuating control: an operator control used
to initiate slide motion. Reference: foot control;
pedal; twohand control; two hand
plate: a plate or fabrication
installed between the die(s) and the slide, to accommodate the die configuration to the slide face for proper location and fastening. NOTE: When used with a quick
die change system, the adapter plate is provided with clamping slots and/or a
ADC: automatic die
adjustable barrier guard: a guard with provisions
for adjustment to accommodate various jobs or tooling setups.
adjustable bed: a bed bolted to the
straight, vertical, finished surface of a horn or gap press frame and screw or screws usually operated by a hand
mechanism. NOTE: Can also refer to the bed (of a large straight side press) mounted and guided in the press frame
and provided with a suitable mechanism, usually operated supported, and adjusted up and down, by means of a by
power, for varying the press shutheight. An example is a wedge adjustment on a knuckle joint
adjustable bed press: a gap frame press with a
straight front that is equipped with, or arranged for, an adjustable bed.
Reference: horn press.
the capability of varying the length of stroke of a
adjustment of a slide: preferred term
is slide adjustment.
is die cushion.
is die cushion.
is die cushion.
is pressure pin.
is pneumatic power press.
antirepeat: the function of the control system that limits the press to a single cycle
with the actuating control(s) held operated. NOTE: Antirepeat requires the release of all actuating controls
before another cycle can be initiated. Antirepeat is the control equivalent of a single-cycle mechanism, with
the additional requirement of the release of all actuating controls to enable a new cycle. The function of
antirepeat is to prevent the successive cycles that could occur if the antirepeat control did not exist.
Reference: single cycle capability; single cycle
tie-down: with a two-hand
control device, the function of the control system that requires the release of all actuators before press
operation can be reinitiated.
automatic die change: the fully programmable
procedure for changing from the current die setup to a second die setup, without any manual intervention. NOTE: An
automatic die change can involve a single press, or a line of presses dedicated to the production of a single end
automatic die clamp: a power actuated means
for fastening dies into the press. NOTE: Automatic die clamps are usually electrically controlled and may be
hydraulically or pneumatically actuated. Reference: die
automatic feeding: the process whereby
means other than manual are used to place the material or workpiece(s) into the press and to remove the material or
workpiece(s) from the press. NOTE: Transfer press feeds also move the workpiece(s) from die station to die station.
For pick-and-place or robotic systems, feeding mechanisms move the workpiece(s) from press to press.
Reference: manual feeding.
mode: any operating mode that
produces continuous cycling. Reference: automatic single
cycle; continuous cycling;
continuous mode; operator-maintained continuous mode.
press: a press production
system in which the work, either separate workpieces, coil stock, or sheet stock, is fed through the press in
synchronism with the press and by means other than manual. NOTE: Progressive die and transfer presses are the most
common automatic presses. Reference: synchronous
cycle: continuous cycling,
initiated by an operator, and maintained by actuating signals from an automatic feeding mechanism, or other
auxiliary equipment, without further operator interaction.
automatic single stroke: preferred term
is automatic single cycle.
guard: preferred term
the frame member of the press to which the bolster is
attached. NOTE: The lower die shoe is sometimes attached directly to the bed.
opening (1): space(s) in the bed of a press to accommodate a die
opening (2): space(s) in the bed of a press provided for removal of scrap or
parts from the die(s).
size: the area provided to accommodate the bolster, expressed as
left-to-right by front-to-back.
press: any small press of a size to be mounted on a bench or table.
NOTE: Bench presses are almost always gap frame and may be inclinable or
blank: a flat workpiece
produced as the first operation of a stamping process.
blankholder slide: preferred term
is outer slide.
(1): the process of producing
a flat stamping from coil, strip, or sheet stock.
blanking (2): the means of bypassing a
portion of a sensing field of a presence-sensing safeguarding device.
blank-out: preferred term
is blanking (2).
the plate attached to the bed, which may have tapped
holes, T-slots, or other means for attaching die components. NOTE: When the press is fitted with die cushions, the
bolster will have holes for retaining and guiding pressure pins. If die cushions are slide-mounted, a bolster plate
may be used as a slide adapter.
bolster carriage: preferred term
is moving bolster.
plate: preferred term
press: preferred term
is underdrive press.
brake: a mechanism for
stopping, slowing, or preventing motion. NOTE: The brake may be a constantdrag type (typical on a full-revolution
clutch press), or it may be a type disengaged while the clutch is engaged (most typical with a part-revolution
clutch press). It may be a separate unit, or it may be a unit incorporated in combination with the
monitor: preferred term is stopping-performance monitor.
a slow-acting horizontal mechanical press with a large
bed used for bending and straightening. NOTE: The work, which is done between dies, may be either hot or cold. The
machine is closely allied to a forging press.
press: a multiple action press in which the slide(s) is operated by
a cam-driven mechanism to produce dwell at the end of the stroke. NOTE: On multiple action presses,
toggle-driven mechanisms are more common than cam-driven mechanisms.
capacity of a
press: preferred term
is rated capacity.
a platform or system of platforms, usually elevated at
least 8 feet above floor level. NOTE: Catwalks are provided for placement of press controls or access to other
auxiliary equipment. With a multiple press line, catwalks on individual presses are usually connected
drive: a two-point geared press with the crankshaft driven from the
C-frame press: preferred term
is gap frame press.
a mechanism that, when engaged, transmits torque to
impart motion from a driving member to a driven member. NOTE: On a mechanical power press, a clutch couples the
flywheel to the main shaft or eccentric gear(s), either directly or through gear reduction(s).
Reference: full-revolution clutch; partrevolution
the process of sizing, shaping, reshaping, compacting,
or controlling the dimensions of a workpiece by confining or restraining one or more
column: preferred term
clutch/brake: an integral
clutch and brake, with a common actuator, arranged so that upon clutch engagement the brake is disengaged, and upon
clutch disengagement the brake is engaged.
connecting link: preferred term
rod: preferred term
connection: connecting member between a rotating drive member, such as a crank, and a
reciprocating member, such as a slide.
contact velocity: the linear speed at the
point in the stroke where the die engages the material or workpiece(s). NOTE: Contact velocity is a function of
length of stroke, strokes per minute, and crank angle.
continuous cycling: multiple cycles of the
slide without intervening stops at the end of individual cycles.
continuous mode: continuous cycling,
initiated by an operator, and maintained by the press control system, without further operator
continuous stroking: preferred term
is continuous cycling.
continuous-on-demand mode: preferred term
is automatic single cycle.
console: a free-standing
master operator station. NOTE: A control console is usually used to operate an automatic press production system,
including peripheral equipment such as, but not limited to: (a) destacker; (b) automation; and (c) exit conveyor.
control pedestal: preferred term
podium: preferred term
is control console.
pulpit: preferred term
is control console.
counterbalance: means provided to balance the reciprocating mass of the slide, drive
members, and slide attachments. NOTE: Counterbalance is usually provided by the use of pneumatic
counterbalance cylinders, which were originally provided to eliminate force reversal and shock loading of the
main gear(s) at the end of the closing stroke travel. Counterbalance may also prevent a falling slide (and
its attachments) in the event of: (a) a broken connection on a single-point press;
or (b) loss of the brake
with the clutch disengaged. Springs or other means may also be used to provide counterbalance force.
Reference: dynamic balance; push-type cylinder.
system: preferred term
angle: the measurement of
slide position at a predetermined point in the press cycle, based on the angular position of the crank throw (or
eccentric) using top dead center as the reference point. NOTE: On a crankshaft, eccentric shaft, or eccentric gear
press, top dead center is at zero deg. On all presses, bottom dead center is at 180
press: a basic type of mechanical power press wherein the
reciprocating slide motion is produced by a crankshaft or an eccentric shaft.
Reference: eccentric gear press.
a type of knockout.
crossbar transfer feed: a transfer feed that is
capable of two motions: lift and transfer. NOTE: A crossbar transfer feed uses tooling bars. The ends of the bars
are fastened to the transfer rails. Utilization of a crossbar feed requires that the crossbars come to a rest
position between the die stations after the workpieces are deposited in the dies and before the press closes.
Reference: transfer feed; tri-axis transfer feed; two axis transfer feed; walking
the frame member of a press that houses the mechanism
for driving the slide(s), except on an underdrive press.
cushion: preferred term
is die cushion.
lock: preferred term
is die cushion lock.
a complete movement of the slide, from the initial
start position back to the same start position, that may include feeding and removal of the material or
stop: preferred term is top
inching (or jogging) of a press with the flywheel
rotating and power removed from the drive motor.
pin: the fixed main shaft of an eccentric gear press wherein the
gear(s) rotates on this shaft.
deflection: the amount of deviation
of a press member, measured from a reference surface, when a force is applied. NOTE: Used to specify allowable
deviation of bed, slide, or frame, at rated capacity with a specified load
die(s): the tooling used in a
press for blanking, shearing, punching, forming, drawing, or assembling metal or other material. NOTE: Commonly the
plural dies is used to
describe the complete die, consisting of an upper element and a lower element. Thus, the
expression dies close has the same
meaning as die closes.
block: preferred term is safety
plate: the interface between
the die and the fixed roller plate when the press is converted to QDC. The die(s) is bolted to the die cart plate,
which is rolled in and out of the press utilizing the rollers in the fixed roller
change time: the total elapsed time from the start of removal of the currently
installed die to the completion of installation of the next die.
changeover time: preferred term is die change
a mechanism attached to a press member, such as a slide
or bed, for fastening the die(s) into the press. NOTE: On a slide, die clamps fasten to the upper die shoe or the
clamping plate. On a bed, die clamps fasten to the lower die shoe, bottom clamping plate, or moving
cushion: a press accessory that provides the counterforce required in
some operations to aid in the forming or release of the workpiece. NOTE: The pressure system used to produce
counterforce is usually compressed air, but hydraulic systems, hydro pneumatic systems, rubber, and springs
are also used. Although usually mounted within the press bed and under the bolster, die cushions may
sometimes be mounted within the slide, within an attachment to the slide, or within the die. A die cushion
may also act as stripper or liftout. Reference: nitrogen
lock: a means of holding the
die cushion in its stroke down position, and relieving all force from the stamping, until the press slide has reached a predetermined position
in its return stroke. NOTE: The locking device is usually a hydraulic cylinder attached to the die
enclosure guard: a guard attached to the die shoe or stripper in a fixed
safety block: preferred term is safety
a tool holder consisting of a lower die shoe and an
upper die shoe or punchholder, held in alignment by guide posts and bushings. NOTE: Means of maintaining
parallelism and alignment of the upper and lower die shoes include the
following: (a) guideposts and
bushings that are usually an integral part of the die set; (b) guideposts and bushings, supplemented by heel blocks to
contain lateral forces; and (c) the press gibbing,
or other means of guiding the press slide.
setting: the process of installing or removing dies and the process
of adjusting and safeguarding the dies, other tooling, or equipment.
shoe: a plate or block upon which the die members are mounted.
NOTE: A die shoe functions primarily as a base for the complete die assembly and, if used, is bolted or
clamped to the bolster or to the face of the slide. The individual die shoes are often referred to as the
lower shoe and the upper shoe or punch holder.
shutheight: the actual or design dimension between the mounting surfaces of a
die. NOTE: Maximum die shutheight to which a die can be designed is the press shutheight less the bolster
thickness. Reference: press shutheight.
the volume encompassed by the slide area projected to
the bed or bolster surface, wherein the dies are mounted.
spotter: preferred term is spotting
time: the total changeover
time from the last good part until the operation is producing the next good part.
tryout: the process of functionally testing and performing
adjustments or alterations to the die assembly. NOTE: Die tryout differs from die setting in that tryout will
usually involve more significant alterations to the die than the routine adjustments associated with die
setting. Die tryout may occur as the final construction phase of the die, in a number of different
situations, some of which are: (a) in the die
builder’s (vendor’s) plant and press; (b) in the user’s plant in a press other than that intended for
production; or (c) in the user’s
plant in the press designated to be used for production.
drive: the type of driving arrangement that does not use a
action press: a multiple action press with two slides.
Reference: multiple action press
press: a crank press with
force applied through two connections. NOTE: A double crank press may be either a gap frame press or a straight
(1): on a mechanical power press, the overtravel of the slide
past top dead center when stopping.
(2): on a hydraulic power press, the downward movement of the
slide due to leakage within the hydraulic system.
drive: the source of mechanical
force and energy to impart press motion.
cycle: a complete movement of the slide from the initial start
position back to the same start position, without the feeding and removal of
dwell: a portion of the press
cycle where movement of the slide is zero, or at least insignificant. NOTE: Usually refers to the interval in a
drawing operation when the blankholder is holding the blank while the punch is making the
dynamic balance: means to balance the
reciprocating weight and inertial forces of the slide, drive members, and slide attachments. NOTE: A dynamically
balanced mechanical press includes counterweights to balance rotary crank forces along with an auxiliary balancing
means to balance reciprocating slide inertia forces.