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eccentric: the offset portion of the main shaft or main gear that imparts reciprocating slide motion. NOTE: The stroke length of the press is twice the offset dimension.

eccentric gear press: a basic type of mechanical power press wherein the reciprocating slide motion is produced by an eccentric gear(s). Reference: crank press.

eccentric motion: the slide motion produced when the slide connection(s) is directly driven by a crankshaft, eccentric shaft, or eccentric gear(s). NOTE: The slide motion diagram is symmetrical before and after bottom dead center.

eccentric shaft: a crankshaft with crankpin of such a size that it contains or surrounds the shaft.

eccentric strap: preferred term is connection.

eccentricity: in a crank or eccentric gear press, the distance from the centerline of the crankpin or main shaft to the centerline of the crankpin(s) or eccentric(s). NOTE: The eccentricity is equal to one half of the stroke length.

effective draw: the maximum limits of forming depth that can be accomplished with a multiple action press. NOTE: Effective draw as shown on a motion diagram for a multiple action press is the distance of the inner slide from the end of its stroke, at the point where the outer slide begins its dwell. For a triple action press as well, the effective draw of the lower slide will be shown as the distance from the end of its stroke, at the point where the inner slide begins its dwell. Reference: dwell.

emergency stop: the immediate or controlled stopping of all hazardous press motion, accompanied by the removal of sources of electrical energy to the press. NOTE: For most mechanical power presses, the red mushroom head STOP palm button does not stop the flywheel and should not be considered an emergency stop. An emergency stop may not remove stored pneumatic or hydraulic energy. Reference: stop control; top stop.

emergency stop control: an operator control, usually a push button (palm button) with a large, red, protruding mushroom head, that when actuated, initiates an emergency stop. Reference: stop control.

energy curve: preferred term is usable energy curve.

ergonomics: the evaluation, design, or redesign of facilities, environments, jobs, job tasks, training methods, and equipment to match the capabilities of people.

eyelet machine: an automatic multiple station transfer feed machine for making drawn stampings by use of cam-driven adjustable plungers, acting from above and below the workpiece, and to which individual tool elements are attached. NOTE: An eyelet machine does not utilize a slide or slides, or die sets. Unlike press slides, eyelet machine plungers are individually adjustable for timing within a machine cycle.

face of slide: preferred term is slide face.

feeding: the process of placing the material or workpiece(s) into the press or removing the material or workpiece(s) from the press.

fine blanking: the process of blanking that provides full penetration of the metal before the blank is released from the strip or sheet. NOTE: In conventional blanking, the blank is released after about 35% penetration, which produces a rough edge with what are called: (a) rollover; (b) land; (c) breakout; and (d) burr. Fine blanking eliminates the breakout, which is about 60% of the edge, and produces a workpiece that is precision finished except for deburring.

first action: preferred term is outer slide.

fixed barrier guard: a guard affixed to the frame, bolster, or other surface in such a manner as to enclose all or part of the point of operation or other hazard area.

fixed roller plate: a bolster-like plate that becomes a fixed plate of the press bed when converted to QDC. The plate incorporates die clamps and hydraulically operated rollers. The rollers lift to facilitate movement of the die cart plate, and lower to position the die cart plate in the press.

flywheel: a wheel that rotates constantly when the motor is energized and whose purpose is to store kinetic energy during the nonworking portion of the press cycle, and to release energy during the working portion of the press cycle. NOTE: Most press operations are performed in less than 25% of the cycle. Thus with a flywheel the peak horsepower requirement of the motor is greatly reduced.

flywheel energy: preferred term is usable flywheel energy.

flywheel press: a nongeared mechanical power press that has the flywheel mounted directly to the crankshaft or eccentric shaft.

foot control: a foot operated electrical actuating control. Reference: actuating control; pedal.

foot pedal: preferred term is pedal.

four-piece tie rod frame: preferred term is tie rod frame.

four-point press: a press with force applied to the slide through four connections.

friction clutch: a mechanical clutch wherein torque and energy are transmitted by the coupling of rotating and stationary members by the application of clamping force on frictional surfaces between the members. Reference: part-revolution clutch; positive clutch.

front of press: for a freestanding power press, the face of the master operator station usually identifies the front. NOTE: The right and left sides of the press are to the right and left of an individual facing the front of the press.

front-to-back shaft press: a mechanical power press in which the main shaft and other drive shafts are positioned in a front-to-back orientation.

full-revolution clutch: a type of clutch that, when engaged, cannot be disengaged until the press has completed a cycle. NOTE: These clutches require a full revolution before they can be disengaged, generally by a throw-out cam arrangement that is part of the clutch mechanism. Reference: part-revolution clutch; positive clutch.

gage of material: the thickness of the material being processed.

gap: preferred term is throat depth.

gap frame press: a general classification of presses in which the frames are made in the approximate form of a letter “C”.

gauge of material: preferred term is gage of material.

geared press: a press whose main crank or eccentric is connected to the driving source by one or more sets of gears.

gibs: the press components that guide the reciprocating motion of the slide to ensure required squareness and parallelism. NOTE: Gibs are usually provided with replaceable liners, and are usually adjustable to enable setting of proper clearance and to compensate for wear.

guard: a barrier that prevents entry into the point of operation or other hazard area. Reference: adjustable barrier guard; die enclosure guard; fixed barrier guard; interlocked barrier guard.

guide post: the pin and bushing assembly used to maintain the alignment of the dies. NOTE: Guideposts are usually an integral part of the die set.

guide rods: the press components that guide the reciprocating motion of the slide to ensure required squareness and parallelism.

hand control: a hand operated mechanism used as an actuating control. Reference: actuating control; twohand control; two hand trip.

high energy rate press: a forging machine that imparts impact to the workpiece, by means of high slide velocities resulting from the sudden release of a compressed gas against a free piston.

hit-to-hit time: preferred term is die transition time.

holdout device: preferred term is restraint device.

horizontal press: a press in which the slide reciprocates horizontally.

horn: a horizontal cantilever block or post that acts as the die, or to which the die is fastened.

horn press: a gap frame press with a straight front that is equipped with, or arranged for, a horn. NOTE: Used for framing, punching, or riveting operations on basically cylindrical parts. Reference: adjustable bed press.

human factors: one of several terms used to describe ergonomics.

hydraulic cushion: preferred term is hydraulic die cushion.

hydraulic die cushion: a die cushion that uses a hydraulic pressure system to produce the counterforce. Reference: die cushion; NC die cushion.

hydraulic overload: preferred term is overload relief device.

hydraulic power press: a machine tool that transmits force hydraulically to cut, form, or assemble metal or other material by means of tools or dies attached to and operated by slides.

hydraulic tie rod nut: a tie rod nut arranged to pre stress the tie rod hydraulically NOTE: Not to be confused with a hydraulic overload.

hydropneumatic cushion: preferred term is hydropneumatic die cushion.

hydropneumatic die cushion: a die cushion that uses a hydropneumatic pressure system to produce the counterforce.

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